2020 Sep;18(3):519-527. doi: 10.1016/j.ortho.2020.04.003. Ramos AB, Moro AFV, Rocha GM, Reis Perez CD.  |  Flexural loading is an important parameter for the dental prosthetic materials as it imitates situations they undergo in the oral environment. Flexural strength is the ability of a material to resist fracture. Materials with high flexural strength offer advantages with these applications in particular: Zirconia is probably the best-performing all-ceramic material in dentistry in terms of flexural strength. Flexural strength: one of the key values for evaluating the stability of a material. ISO 6872, ISO11405, ISO14801, ISO 9917, and other standards specify the requirements and the corresponding test methods to access dental materials. The statistical evaluation of these findings was performed using the OriginPro 7.5G SR2 program (OriginLab Corporation, Northampton, MA, USA). Little research has been done to compare and analyze the difference and correlation between these test methods for CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics although both UNI (3PF and 4PF) and BI (piston-on-three-ball) have been recommended to evaluate dentistry-ceramic materials in International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6782 [ 24]. Flexural strength is a term that is frequently used in the dental world. Methods: portalId: "4937967", Zirconia is probably the best-performing all-ceramic material in dentistry in terms of flexural strength. The ranking of the flexure strengths from lowest to highest was as follows: Admira< Supreme Dentin< Artemis< Alert< Supreme body< TPH< Clearfil Photo Posterior. "In vitro comparison of flexural strength and elastic modulus of three provisional crown materials used in fixed prosthodontics". Lower portion of the beam is in tension, upper portion is in compression and sides reveal shear stresses.  |  The flexural strength of a material is obtained when one loads a simple single beam, simply supported (not fixed) at each end, with a load applied in the middle (Figures 5-3 and 5-4).Such a test is called a three-point bending (3PB) or flexure test and the maximum stress measured in the test is called flexural strength. Meanwhile, another inorganic material such as Carbonate Apatite (CO 3 Ap) has been known as bone substitute for decades. Flexural strength was determined with the use of both test methods after 1 week of conditioning in water at 37°C. (f) Flexural strength of the 12mm long plasma-treated polypropylene fiber-reinforced polymethyl methacrylate DISCUSSION Flexural loading is an important parameter for the dental prosthetic materials as it imitates situations they undergo in the oral environment. ss_form.domain = 'app-3QNBYC3Z2C.marketingautomation.services'; ss_form.hidden = {'_usePlaceholders':true}; Z Crown Anterior provides your patients with a high-quality esthetic restoration. Denture resins should be biocompatible, esthetic, cleansable, and easily repairable and have adequate physical and mechanical properties. The relationship between strength and translucency in the oxide ceramic material currently available is inversely proportionate. It has 550 MPa of flexural strength. It is expressed in the metric system as megapascals or MPa. Clinical studies have shown cermets perform poorly. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Lowe, R.A. … The two standard methods used to test the flexural strength of any material are: ‘Third-point loading’ and/or ‘Center-point loading’. Methods Two hundred and ten bars, 25 mm × 3 mm × 2 mm, were made from IPS e.max ® Press ingots through lost-wax, hot-pressed ceramic fabrication technology and randomly divided into five groups with forty-two per group after polishing. Crown Under Partial – Three Easy Techniques to Remember, Effective Dental Lab Communication through Smartphone Technology, Cosmetic Dental – Accurate Shade Matching Techniques, Screw Retained vs Cement Retained Implants, Choosing Between Lithium Disilicate & Zirconia, How Bayshore’s Web Portal Technology can benefit Your Practice. For the values to be comparable, they must be obtained using the same measuring method. Current research is pushing towards an industry standard, but that has not been currently achieved. This study compared two test methods used to evaluate the flexural strength of resin-based dental composites. }); Dental Lab| Dental Laboratory Services | Privacy Policy, Two Methods for Cementing Crowns and Bridges. Key Words: PMMA, Graphene, Mechanical resistance, Flexural strength, Elastic modulus. Flexural strength of a dental material reflects its ability to withstand tensile stresses and as such has an impact of the fracture risk of a filling. : 136–137 Rigidity- Inelastic (rigid) impression materials are used with patients with shallow undercuts. J Prosthet Dent. Purpose. Flexural Strength. II. Dental Adhesive, Composite Resin, and Ceramic Material Tensile, Shear, and Flexural Testing System Acknowledgements . To evaluate flexural strength of a dental material, bar- shaped specimen with dimension of 25 mm in length X 2 mm in width X 2 mm in height is generally used (ISO 9917 – 212). Ellakuria J, Triana R, Mínguez N, Soler I, Ibaseta G, Maza J, García-Godoy F. Dent Mater. The term flexural strength is widely used when evaluating dental materials, which raises some questions: Flexural strength is a term frequently used in the dental lab world. J Clin Exp Dent, 5(5), e212-e17. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature variation on surface microhardness and resistance to flexion of different materials used for making a temporary dental disocclusion. Low viscosity composites, with a flexural modulus of at least 18 GPa and a flexural strength of at least 90 MPa for filling dental root canals for fixing post or as a build-up material on post, are composed of aluminum oxide with a mean particle size of 1 to 50 μm in combination with at least one additional filler with a mean particle size of 0.5 to 5 μm and a monomer mixture. 2002). Request PDF | Flexural Strength and Fracture Toughness of Dental Core Ceramics | Many different strengthened all-ceramic core materials are available. With good reason: flexural strength is a key value when it comes to the durability of a material such as zirconium oxide. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. References. Mean flexural strength ranged from 78.95 to 130.83 at 24 hours. Weibull statistics determined intergroup differences (α=.05). However, the flexural strength determined during a test depends heavily on the measuring method used and the surface preparation of the test samples, for instance on whether a material is polished or ground. Beam specimens (n=22/material) were tested for determining flexural strength using a 3-point bend test. This study compared flexural strength of 3D-printed three-unit fixed dental prostheses with that of conventionally fabricated and milled restorations. Ten specimens of Y-TZP were divided into two groups. The clinical application of 3D-printed provisional restorations is increasing due to expansion of intraoral scanners, easy dental computer-aided design (CAD) software, and improved 3D printing speed. Dental enamel is the highly mineralized (up to 80–90 vol%), hierarchically structured biological material that covers the crowns of teeth. Composite resins; Dental materials; Glass ionomer cements; Hardness tests; Orthodontics. The zirconia used in Z Crown Anterior is naturally translucent and easily stainable, blending flawlessly with the patient’s existing dentition. flexural stress (Mpa) P : Load at fracture (N) : Distance btw 2 supports (mm) : Width of specimen (mm) t : Thickness of specimen (mm) The flexural strength of an experimental bioceramic Calcium aluminate-based (CA) dental restorative material was measured using three different methods with a composite (Tetric Ceram), a glass ionomer cement (Fuji II) and a phosphate cement (Harward) as references. Would you like email updates of new search results? The former test requires application of a set of two equal loads at each 1/3rd point on the entire span of material, while the latter involves application of complete load at the center of the length of the material. The present study utilized three-point bending test to measure the flexural strength of the prepared polymer composite. Two main techniques have been described to determine the flexural strength of ceramics: uni-axial flexure test (UNI) and bi-axial flexure test (BI) [ 17]. The reinforced ceramic materials investigated utilized a number of different strengthening processes, … Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. The relative flexural strengths of ten brands of dental restorative ceramics were evaluated by a three-point bending test. Flexural strength is a fundamental mechanical property for brittle materials, although the results cannot be directly extrapolated to the clinical behavior without considering some other aspects, namely flaw distribution 17 and the structural reliability of the material. Comparative Evaluation of Compressive, Flexural Strength and Micro Hardness of Different Dental Materials (IJSRD/Vol. The temperature variation has an effect on the properties of these materials. NIH In one study of 72 restorative materials it was also shown that filler volume had a significant influence on the mechanical proper-ties. MATERIALS AND METHODS The flexural strengths of ten com- mercially available dental restor- ative ceramics were evaluated in this Dental Materials~July 1990 181 study. Impact of high-speed sintering on translucency, phase content, grain sizes, and flexural strength of 3Y-TZP and 4Y-TZP zirconia materials. Objective: In the mechanical tests, all materials except the GIC showed a statistically significant difference between the groups subjected to thermal cycling and not submitted, and thermal cycling (P<0.05) was responsible for the reduction of the values found, except for GIC. Comparative evaluation of the remineralising effects and surface microhardness of glass ionomer cement containing grape seed extract and casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate: an in vitro study. Present study aimed at evaluating the colour stability and flexural strength of flexible denture base materials (Valplast) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material (Meliodent) processed by two different methods (Injection moulding and compression moulding) after immersing them in three different denture cleansers with acidic, basic and neutral PH. 2010 Apr;19(3):218-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-849X.2009.00551.x. The Evaluation of Flexural Strength of Composite Resin Materials with and without Fiber Mustafa Gundogdu1, Duygu Kurklu 2, Nuran Yanikoglu3*and Esra Kul1 1Research Assistant, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey 2Assistant Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Konak Dental Hospital, İzmir, Turkey High flexural strength is essential for stress-bearing restorations such as posterior crowns. hbspt.forms.create({ Composites with higher fillers content will have better flexural strength. 2003 Jun;19(4):286-90. doi: 10.1016/s0109-5641(02)00042-8. Megapascal is the mega unit used to measure the intensity of pressure or force per unit area that a material is able to withstand before breaking. What you need to know about Flexural Strength before selecting a Crown Material. 2011 Oct;56(10):1014-9. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.03.005. Thanks for material support to Dt. For each group, the specimens were tested to compare their biaxial flexural strength (piston on 3 balls) (n=15), Weibull modulus, and indentation fracture toughness (n=10) (IF … Beril Balci, 3M ESPE/Turkey. Conclusion: J Prosthodont. One hundred specimens were made of the following materials (n=20): glass ionomer cement (GIC); compomer (CP); composite resin (CR); Blue colour resin composite for temporary dental disocclusion (BTDD); ultraviolet colour resin composite for temporary dental disocclusion (UVTDD). Flexural strengths of the BMA and IBMA copolymers were significantly higher than those of the control group. Epub 2009 Dec 21. It was concluded that composition of dental composite materials significantly affects their flexural strength. The higher the value, the more impacting forces the material can withstand. … Mechanical Properties of Dental Materials - Dr. Nithin Mathew FLEXURAL STRENGTH • For a bar with a rectangular cross-section subjected to a 3 point flexure, the flexural strength can be calculated as 64 σ = 3PL 2 wt2 σ : Max. Copyright © 2020 CEO. The two test methods evaluated were the three-point bending test4 and the biaxial flexural test. Accordingly the bending strengths of these two material types ranged from 170.37 ± 19.31 MPa to 1009.63 ± 107.33 MPa. High flexural strength also benefits the thickness of the restoration walls. However, only few reports evaluated flexural strength of nonfiber reinforced dental materials. ss_form.height = '1000'; All tested specimens showed higher values than the prevailing minimum strength for plastic materials and their application in dentistry of 65 MPa (DIN EN ISO 10477). Extensive or long-span restorations. Rayyan, M. M., et al. Purpose. 34th Annual Conference of the European Prosthodontic Association and 1st Conference of the Association of prosthetic Dentistry of Kosova, in September 23-25/2010 Prishtina/Kosova. PMMA was reinforced by ethyl-methacrylate, BMA and IBMA copolymerization. Only the relationship between flexural strength and the postcuring treatment [ 17 ] and the relationship between flexural strength and the different polishing protocols [ 31 ] have been tested nowadays. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of speed sintering on the flexural strength of 5 mol% yttrium partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) restorations made in Mihm-Vogt Dental Geratebau GmbH & Co. KG (conventional) and SpeedFire (Speed) sintering ovens. NLM Comparisons between different materials are therefore not always definitive and values measured with different measuring methods are not comparable. BTDD and UVTDD presented higher average results of surface microhardness and, in the resistance test, the flexion of these materials behaved similarly to the CP and the CR studied. flexural strength value (97.40 MPa). Department of Prosthodontics, Shiraz Dental School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Abstract Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different mouthwashes on the flexural strength of five interim restorative materials. Introduction Nanotechnology is a field of research concerned with the development of new materials, such as graphene, characterized by different behaviour from their bulk matter counterparts1. Micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to glass ionomer cement using an alternative method to build up test specimens. Accordingly the bending strengths of these two material types ranged from 170.37 ± 19.31 MPa to 1009.63 ± 107.33 MPa. The higher the translucency of a material, the lower the flexural strength and the higher the flexural strength of a material, the lower its translucency. LITERATURE SURVEY In the recent decay very large research is done to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of dental materials. The more extensive the restoration is, the stronger the material should be. Among the translucent zirconia materials flexural strength ranges from 600 to 900 MPa. When considering dental lab products, Z Solid is a proven choice for posterior and long-span restorations. According to the regression analysis, σ 0 increased with the increase of K Ic until ∼0.75 MPa m 1/2 . Mineral loss on adjacent enamel glass ionomer cements restorations after cariogenic and erosive challenges. Impact of crystallization firing process on the microstructure and flexural strength of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramics Dent Mater. [ 9 ] Materials used in this investigation were from the same manufacturer (3M ESPE) and included microfill (A110), minifill (Z100 and Filtek Z250), polyacid modified (F2000), and flowable [Filtek Flowable (FF)] composites. The more strength a material offers, the more units a restoration can include. Flexural strength is generally considered a meaningful and reliable characterization parameter to assess the ceramics as they are much weaker in tension than compression [ 15, 16]. Keywords: Flexural strength of a dental material reflects its ability to withstand tensile stresses and as such has an impact of the fracture risk of a filling. To evaluate the effect of adding Al 2 O 3, SiO 2, and TiO 2 nanoparticles in ratios of 1, 3, and 5 wt% to different acrylic resins on flexural strength.. Materials and Methods. Additionally, extensive laboratory testing has shown the fracture toughness and flexural strength of zirconia are significantly higher than that of alumina or any other all- ceramic materials. Discussion Since its introduction in the 1980’s, titanium and its alloys have been a material of great interest in Dentistry, mainly for dental implants, fixed and removable prostheses, Specimens of 6 ceramic core materials (Finesse, Cergo, IPS Empress, In-Ceram Alumina, In-Ceram Zirconia, and Cercon Zirconia) were fabricated (n=25) with a diameter of 15 mm and width of 1.2 ± 0.2 mm. Maximum flexural strength and modulus resulted from a 40% concentration of IBMA. The CFP had a direct influence on the flexural strength and microstructural characteristics of both ZLS materials. Although some brittle materials can be strong, they fracture with little warning because little or no plastic deformation occurs to indicate high levels of stress. Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between fracture toughness (KIc) and flexural strength (FS) in dental porcelains. To evaluate the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching time and resin cement bond on the flexural strength of IPS e.max ® Press glass ceramic. These values were increased to 7.2, 5.1, and 6.6 GPa by the reinforcement sheet. For mixed filler particles (hybrid composites) there was no linear relationship between filler content and flexural strength (Kim et al. With the exception of Sinomer, the tested denture base resins passed the requirements of ISO 1567 regarding flexural modulus (>2000 MPa). The flexural strength of an experimental bioceramic Calcium aluminate-based (CA) dental restorative material was measured using three different methods with a composite (Tetric Ceram), a glass ionomer cement (Fuji II) and a phosphate cement (Harward) as references. Among the translucent zirconia materials, flexural strength ranges from 600 to 900 MPa. It is also becoming important that biocompatible or biodegradable materials are used. Dental impressions are negative imprints of teeth and oral soft tissues from which a positive representation can be cast. Both the material parameters, flexural modulus and flexural strength were evaluated in the bending tests. The tested denture base materials fulfilled the requirements regarding flexural strength (>65 MPa). Flexural strength, also known as modulus of rupture, or bend strength, or transverse rupture strength is a material property, defined as the stress in a material just before it yields in a flexure test. The significance level … Comparison of the flexural strength of six reinforced restorative materials. Every manufacturer of dental materials provides MPa values that indicate flexural strength. Effect of one-year water storage on the surface microhardness of resin-modified versus conventional glass-ionomer cements. In the mechanical tests, all materials except the GIC showed a statistically significant difference between the groups subjected to thermal cycling and not submitted, and thermal cycling (P<0.05) was responsible for the reduction of the values found, except for GIC. USA.gov. Novoselov et Lower translucency dental zirconias have a flexural strength of approximately 1,200 MPa. Epub 2018 Jun 23. The baseline flexural moduli of self-, heat-, and light-curing resins were 2.0, 2.4, and 2.1 GPa, respectively. They are used in prosthodontics (to make dentures), orthodontics, restorative dentistry, dental implantology and oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2018 Sep-Oct;29(5):651-656. doi: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_499_16. Discussion Since its introduction in the 1980’s, titanium and its alloys have been a material of great interest in Dentistry, mainly for dental implants, fixed and removable prostheses, When high pressure/stress is exerted on the material or restoration, especially on bruxism patients, flexural strength determines which a material should be used. Z Solid is a full-contour zirconia with up to 1100 MPa of compressive strength that is precision milled using the latest in CAD/CAM technology. Results: Flexural strength and surface microhardness of materials used for temporary dental disocclusion submitted to thermal cycling: An in vitro study Int Orthod . Dental Materials Strength Test Molds MC-3063DM FOR MORE INFORMATION: Contact Sarah Peterson to learn more at speterson@bisco.com 1-800-247-3368 • 1-847-534-6000 • www.bisco.com DTS Test Mold (Diametral Tensile Strength) 3mm thick by 6mm diameter per ADA No. The baseline flexural strengths of the self-, heat-, and light-curing resins were 76.2, 68.6, and 55.6 MPa, respectively, and these values were increased to 271.7, 216.4, and 266.5 MPa by the reinforcement sheet. Dental amalgam is versatile material with self-sealing property, but is unaesthetic. Factors that can affect the life expectancy of a restoration, How the lab can help you increase productivity, All Ceramic Crown Preparation Guide for IPS e.max® & Z Crown™, Adjusting Your Bayflex™ Flexible Partials – Flexible Partial Adjustment, Minimum Thickness of a Multilayer Porcelain Restoration, IPS e.max CAD System – Strength & Esthetics Combined, Rely on Your Dental Lab for Decisions on Restorative Materials. How Can an Intraoral Scanner Benefit Your Practice? Flexural strength of a dental material reflects its ability to withstand tensile stresses and thus the fracture risk of a filling. Significance All tested specimens showed higher values than the prevailing minimum strength for plastic materials and their application in dentistry of 65 MPa (DIN EN ISO 10477). The flexural strength was maintained with high-speed sintering but led to a decrease in translucency for ZD and HT+. Conversion degree of indirect resin composites and effect of thermocycling on their physical properties. The materials consisted of three low-fusing and one high-fusing feldspathic porcelains and six reinforced dental restorative ceramics which are currently in clinical use. strength test (TIG=514.90±37.76; laser=515.85±62.07) no the flexural strength test (TIG=1559.66; laser=1621.64 (Figs 1 and 2). These products should have adequate strength and toughness to endure forces generated … This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Lower translucency dental zirconias have a flexural strength of approximately 1,200 MPa. They were stored in distilled water for 24hours and, subsequently, half of the specimens in each group were subjected to thermal cycling (n=10). tion. Material and methods. Regarding characteristic strength (σ 0), porcelains D and E showed similar values and statistically higher than those of the other materials which were statistically different from each other. The Triple Tray Impression Technique & when to use it. Flexural strength is one of the most significant mechanical properties of the restorative materials because in flexural strength test the tested material will be subjected to compression, tension and shear forces similar to the load found in the oral cavity.5 One brand of bulk fill composite found nowadays in dental market is Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar-Vivadent). For microhardness, the highest average was found for BTDD and UVTDD (P≤0.05). From a scientific point of view, flexural strength is the resistance of a material to breakage or fracture. Flexural Strength The mean flexural strengths of the materials is shown in Table IIA,B, b and Figure 1. Flexural tests are not suitable for rubber for determination of the ultimate flexural strength. materials Article Flexural Strength of 3D-Printing Resin Materials for Provisional Fixed Dental Prostheses Sang-Mo Park 1,y, Ji-Man Park 2,y, Seong-Kyun Kim 1,*, Seong-Joo Heo 1 and Jai-Young Koak 1 1 Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University Dental Hospital, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Korea; As for the resistance, the flexion was found that in the groups not submitted to thermal cycling there was no statistically significant difference for all materials, except for GIC, for the groups with thermal cycling the materials BTDD and UVTDD showed a statistically significant difference from GIC, however, they did not differ statistically from the CP and CR groups. The materials tested are listed in Table 1. var ss_form = {'account': 'MzawMDEzNrKwAAA', 'formID': 's0w1NDY2NzLQTTYwtdA1MUyz0E2ySLPUTUo1sjBLTDQxSUxKAwA'}; Bis-acryl provisional materials exhibited higher flexural strength than the methacrylate resins. ue of this material in dental prosthesis. Disrupting Orthodontics With Clear Aligners, How to Disinfect the Intraoral Scanner in your Dental Office. The flexural strength of an experimental bioceramic Calcium aluminate-based (CA) dental restorative material was measured using three different methods with a composite (Tetric Ceram), a glass ionomer cement (Fuji II) and a phosphate cement (Harward) as references. Zirconia is probably the best-performing all-ceramic material in dentistry in terms of flexural strength. Minimally invasive treatment options with thin wall thicknesses. Souza RO, Ozcan M, Michida SM, de Melo RM, Pavanelli CA, Bottino MA, Soares LE, Martin AA. While the incorporation of silver achieved this, cermets have poorer aesthetics, appearing metallic rather than white. (2015). Narasimha Jayanthi V. … The flexural strength data were analyzed by applying two-way variance analysis. Visit our Z Crown™ Family product page to learn more, or fill form below for more information. Indian J Dent Res. This means a material that offers high flexural strength and high fracture resistance allows very thinner restorations to be produced and is therefore well suited for minimally invasive treatment options.  |  Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! 2018 Oct;34(10):1483-1491. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.06.010. Flexural strength is a meaningful mechanical property for brittle materials, although the results cannot be extrapolated to the clinical behavior without considering some aspects, namely flaw distribution 11 and structural reliability of the material. HHS Flexural strength of all three materials significantly differs after immersion in control and disinfectant solution with P < 0.001 [Table 5]. Every manufacturer of dental materials provides values that refer to this feature. restorative materials. Because most dental materials are quite brittle, they are highly susceptible to crack initiation in the presence of surface flaws when subjected to tensile stress, such as when they are subjected to flexural loading. To evaluate the effect of adding Al 2 O 3, SiO 2, and TiO 2 nanoparticles in ratios of 1, 3, and 5 wt% to different acrylic resins on flexural strength.. Materials and Methods. This mode is applied to relatively rigid plastics, linear or cross-linked, unreinforced or reinforced, since tensile test is somewhat difficult for high modulus materials. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Why is digital technology such a great fit in dentistry? As soon as this value is exceeded, the test specimen breaks. strength test (TIG=514.90±37.76; laser=515.85±62.07) no the flexural strength test (TIG=1559.66; laser=1621.64 (Figs 1 and 2). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of glazing on flexural strength of highly translucent zirconia materials.Specimens of three brands of zirconia bars (Prettau Zirconia, Zirkonzahn; inCoris TZI, Sirona; and Zirlux FC, Pentron Ceramics) were prepared and polished according to manufacturers' instructions. Michida SM, de Melo RM, Pavanelli CA, Bottino MA Soares! Values to be comparable, they must be obtained using the OriginPro 7.5G SR2 program OriginLab... Clin Exp Dent, 5 ( 5 ), hierarchically structured biological material that covers the of. Meanwhile, another inorganic material such as Carbonate Apatite ( CO 3 Ap ) has been known bone... 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